Watson for Oncology (WFO) – more details

Back to Watson for Oncology (WFO). … so today was deep dive day to look at what papers were written specifically re WFO.

So,  on Sunday, June 23, 2019, using Google Scholar … the list below is of  the main useful things I could find.

Conclusions:

  • Shows promise
  • Not ready for solo flight (i.e. needs clinicians to work with it).
  • Benefits from adding diagnostic tests liken GEA (Gene expression assays)
  • Keep working on improving WFO, and understand specifics better.

 

Literature I looked at, will look at it again in more detail, and provide further insights.

  1. Choi, Y. I., Chung, J. W., Kim, K. O., Kwon, K. A., Kim, Y. J., Park, D. K., … & Sung, K. H. (2019). Concordance Rate between Clinicians and Watson for Oncology among Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer: Early, Real-World Experience in Korea. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2019.
  2. Kim, Y. Y., Oh, S. J., Chun, Y. S., Lee, W. K., & Park, H. K. (2018). Gene expression assay and Watson for Oncology for optimization of treatment in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. PloS one, 13(7), e0200100.
  3. Schmidt, C. (2017). MD Anderson breaks with IBM Watson, raising questions about artificial intelligence in oncology. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 109(5).
  4. Zhang, X. C., Zhou, N., Zhang, C. T., Lv, H. Y., Li, T. J., Zhu, J. J., … & Liu, G. (2017). 544P Concordance study between IBM Watson for Oncology (WFO) and clinical practice for breast and lung cancer patients in China. Annals of Oncology, 28(suppl_10), mdx678-001.
  5. Zou, F., Liu, C. Y., Liu, X. H., Tang, Y. F., Ma, J. A., & Hu, C. H. (2018). Concordance Study between IBM Watson for Oncology and Real Clinical Practice for Cervical Cancer Patients in China: A Retrospective Analysis. Available at SSRN 3287513.
  6. Somashekhar, S. P., Sepúlveda, M. J., Puglielli, S., Norden, A. D., Shortliffe, E. H., Rohit Kumar, C., … & Ramya, Y. (2018). Watson for Oncology and breast cancer treatment recommendations: agreement with an expert multidisciplinary tumor board. Annals of Oncology, 29(2), 418-423.
  7. Somashekhar, S. P., Sepúlveda, M. J., Norden, A. D., Rauthan, A., Arun, K., Patil, P., … & Kumar, R. C. (2017). Early experience with IBM Watson for Oncology (WFO) cognitive computing system for lung and colorectal cancer treatment.
  8. Somashekhar, S. P., Kumarc, R., Rauthan, A., Arun, K. R., Patil, P., & Ramya, Y. E. (2017). Abstract S6-07: Double blinded validation study to assess performance of IBM artificial intelligence platform, Watson for oncology in comparison with Manipal multidisciplinary tumour board–First study of 638 breast cancer cases.
  9. Liu, C., Liu, X., Wu, F., Xie, M., Feng, Y., & Hu, C. (2018). Using artificial intelligence (Watson for oncology) for treatment recommendations amongst Chinese patients with lung cancer: Feasibility study. Journal of medical Internet research, 20(9), e11087.
  10. Ross, C., & Swetlitz, I. (2017). IBM pitched its Watson supercomputer as a revolution in cancer care. It’s nowhere close. STAT News.
  11. Zauderer, M. G., Gucalp, A., Epstein, A. S., Seidman, A. D., Caroline, A., Granovsky, S., … & Petri, J. (2014). Piloting IBM Watson Oncology within Memorial Sloan Kettering’s regional network.
  12. Herath, D. H., Wilson-Ing, D., Ramos, E., & Morstyn, G. (2016). Assessing the natural language processing capabilities of IBM Watson for oncology using real Australian lung cancer cases.
  13. Bach, P., Zauderer, M. G., Gucalp, A., Epstein, A. S., Norton, L., Seidman, A. D., … & Keesing, J. (2013). Beyond Jeopardy!: Harnessing IBM’s Watson to improve oncology decision making.
  14. Kris, M. G., Gucalp, A., Epstein, A. S., Seidman, A. D., Fu, J., Keesing, J., … & Setnes, M. (2015). Assessing the performance of Watson for oncology, a decision support system, using actual contemporary clinical cases.
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Artificial Intelligence for Regenerative Medicine

Next on the research reading queue, pointers to applications of AI in Regenerative Medicine. We’ll be including this in discussions.

 

Principle texts:

Wikipedia: Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research ] in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the “process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function”.  This field holds the promise of engineering damaged tissues and organs by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms to functionally heal previously irreparable tissues or organs.
Regenerative medicine also includes the possibility of growing tissues and organs in the laboratory and implanting them when the body cannot heal itself. If a regenerated organ’s cells would be derived from the patient’s own tissue or cells, this would potentially solve the problem of the shortage of organs available for donation, and the problem of organ transplant rejection.
Some of the biomedical approaches within the field of regenerative medicine may involve the use of stem cells.[8] Examples include the injection of stem cells or progenitor cells obtained through directed differentiation (cell therapies); the induction of regeneration by biologically active molecules administered alone or as a secretion by infused cells (immunomodulation therapy); and transplantation of in vitro grown organs and tissues (tissue engineering). ]

 

along these lines, I encountered this interesting title:

 

Zhavoronkova, Anna A., Polina Mamoshinaa, Quentin Vanhaelena, Morten Scheibye-Knudsene, Alexey Moskalevf and Alex Alipera. “Artificial intelligence for aging and longevity research.” (2018).

Abstract: The applications of modern artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms within the field of aging research offer tre- mendous opportunities. Aging is an almost universal unifying feature possessed by all living organisms, tissues, and cells. Modern deep learning techniques used to develop age predictors offer new possibilities for formerly incompatible dynamic and static data types. AI biomarkers of aging enable a holistic view of biological processes and allow for novel methods for building causal models—extracting the most important features and identifying biological targets and mechanisms. Recent developments in generative adversarial networks (GANs) and re- inforcement learning (RL) permit the generation of diverse synthetic molecular and patient data, identification of novel biological targets, and generation of novel molecular compounds with desired properties and ger- oprotectors. These novel techniques can be combined into a unified, seamless end-to-end biomarker develop- ment, target identification, drug discovery and real world evidence pipeline that may help accelerate and im- prove pharmaceutical research and development practices

Artificial Intelligence in Medicine (AIM) – IBM’s WATSON and WatsonPaths

Am working on providing pointers and discussion on  AI in Medicine (AIM).

The general place to check first is the main Artificial Intelligence in Medicine resource page.  You’ll find some useful ideas about Hetnets in biomedicine. These are heterogeneous networks with multiple node or relationship types. Useful for data integration, translation, and biomedical knowledge mining. You’ll also find out aboutProject Rephetio (Drug Repurposing) developed to predict new uses for existing compounds.  In addition, you’ll find links to  OBI – the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

Referenes and links associated with IBM Watson / WatsonPaths medical applications are located here.

For convenience and robustness, I am including the initial references below. Enjoy.

 

AI in Medicine (AIM) approaches and applications have assisted in both trivial and profound ways, and they hold great promise. We argue that there are even larger systemic benefits when AI enabled medicine is considered at a national level.

This page aims to present relevant information and links to resources useful in furthering AIM objectives.  Some links point to reports,preprints,  papers, and books, other point to active and inactive databases, still others point software repositories and AIM specific software and platforms.  While some of the links point to completed and/or terminated projects, we believe there’s much to be learned from the linked resources, and we hope these are used to spark curiosity and further ideas and progress in the spirit of “on the shoulders of Giants”.

AIM Related Projects

IBM WATSON / WatsonPaths: IBM’s Watson architecture was and is being employed in Medical applications.
WatsonPaths: Scenario-Based Question Answering and Inference over Unstructured Information is a key paper available here. As an illustration, the paper discusses a Patient with Erythropoietin Deficiency. Via the query “A 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus has had progressive renal failure… Her hemoglobin concentration is 9 g/dL… A blood smear shows normochromic, normocytic cells. What is the problem?

The table below provides links to some of the key patents in IBM’s Watson Intellectual Property portfolio- SCROLL to the right within the table to see immediate links to the patent PDFs.

id title inventor/author priority date grant date result link
US-10216804-B2 Providing answers to questions using hypothesis pruning Jennifer Chu-Carroll, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Adam P. Lally, James C. Murdock, IV 9/28/10 2/26/19 https://patents.google.com/patent/US10216804B2/en
US-10133808-B2 Providing answers to questions using logical synthesis of candidate answers Eric W. Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, David A. Ferrucci, Adam P. Lally, James W. Murdock, John M. Prager 9/28/10 11/20/18 https://patents.google.com/patent/US10133808B2/en
US-9805613-B2 System and method for domain adaptation in question answering Sugato Bagchi, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Anthony T. Levas, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 5/14/08 10/31/17 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9805613B2/en
US-9798800-B2 Providing question and answers with deferred type evaluation using text with limited structure Pablo A. Duboue, James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci, James W. Murdock, IV, Christopher A. Welty, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 9/24/10 10/24/17 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9798800B2/en
US-9690861-B2 Deep semantic search of electronic medical records Keerthana Boloor, Eric W. Brown, Murthy V. Devarakonda, David Ferrucci, John M. Prager 7/17/14 6/27/17 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9690861B2/en
US-9529845-B2 Candidate generation in a question answering system Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci 8/13/08 12/27/16 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9529845B2/en
US-9508038-B2 Using ontological information in open domain type coercion David A. Ferrucci, Aditya Kalyanpur, James W. Murdock, IV, Christopher A. Welty, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 9/24/10 11/29/16 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9508038B2/en
US-9454603-B2 Semantically aware, dynamic, multi-modal concordance for unstructured information analysis Branimir K. Boguraev, Youssef Drissi, David A. Ferrucci, Paul T. Keyser, Anthony T. Levas 8/6/10 9/27/16 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9454603B2/en
US-9262938-B2 Combining different type coercion components for deferred type evaluation Sugato Bagchi, James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, James W. Murdock, IV, Christopher A. Welty 3/15/13 2/16/16 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9262938B2/en
US-9189541-B2 Evidence profiling Eric W. Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Anthony T. Levas, James W. Murdock, IV 9/24/10 11/17/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9189541B2/en
US-9165252-B2 Utilizing failures in question and answer system responses to enhance the accuracy of question and answer systems Michael A. Barborak, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, David A. Ferrucci, James W. Murdock, IV, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 7/15/11 10/20/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9165252B2/en
US-9153142-B2 User interface for an evidence-based, hypothesis-generating decision support system Sugato Bagchi, Michael A. Barborak, Steven D. Daniels, David A. Ferrucci, Anthony T. Levas 5/26/11 10/6/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9153142B2/en
US-9146917-B2 Validating that a user is human Michael A. Barborak, David A. Ferrucci, James W. Murdock, IV, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 7/15/11 9/29/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9146917B2/en
US-9031832-B2 Context-based disambiguation of acronyms and abbreviations Branimir K. Boguraev, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, David A. Ferrucci, Anthony T. Levas, John M. Prager 9/29/10 5/12/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US9031832B2/en
US-8972321-B2 Fact checking using and aiding probabilistic question answering David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam P. Lally, Siddharth Patwardham 9/29/10 3/3/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8972321B2/en
US-8943051-B2 Lexical answer type confidence estimation and application James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam P. Lally, James W. Murdock, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 9/24/10 1/27/15 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8943051B2/en
US-8880388-B2 Predicting lexical answer types in open domain question and answering (QA) systems David A. Ferrucci, Alfio M. Gliozzo, Aditya A. Kalyanpur 8/4/11 11/4/14 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8880388B2/en
US-2014164303-A1 Method of answering questions and scoring answers using structured knowledge mined from a corpus of data Sugato Bagchi, David A. Ferrucci, Anthony T. Levas, Erik T. Mueller 12/11/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140164303A1/en
US-8738362-B2 Evidence diffusion among candidate answers during question answering David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam P. Lally 9/28/10 5/27/14 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8738362B2/en
US-8738617-B2 Providing answers to questions using multiple models to score candidate answers Eric W. Brown, David A. Ferrucci, James W. Murdock, IV 9/28/10 5/27/14 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8738617B2/en
US-2014108322-A1 Text-based inference chaining David W. Buchanan, David A. Ferrucci, Adam P. Lally 10/12/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140108322A1/en
US-2014072948-A1 Generating secondary questions in an introspective question answering system Branimir K. Boguraev, David W. Buchanan, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, David A. Ferrucci, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, James W. Murdock, IV, Siddharth A. Patwardhan 9/11/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140072948A1/en
US-8560300-B2 Error correction using fact repositories David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 9/9/09 10/15/13 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8560300B2/en
US-8510327-B2 Method and process for semantic or faceted search over unstructured and annotated data Branimir Konstantinov Boguraev, Eric William Brown, Youssef Drissi, David Angelo Ferrucci, Paul Turquand Keyser, Anthony Tom Levas, Dafna Sheinwald 9/24/10 8/13/13 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8510327B2/en
US-8332394-B2 System and method for providing question and answers with deferred type evaluation James Fan, David Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 5/23/08 12/11/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8332394B2/en
US-8301438-B2 Method for processing natural language questions and apparatus thereof David Angelo Ferrucci, Li Ma, Yue Pan, Zhao Ming Qiu, Chen Wang, Christopher Welty, Lei Zhang 4/23/09 10/30/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8301438B2/en
US-8280838-B2 Evidence evaluation system and method based on question answering David A. Ferrucci, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 9/17/09 10/2/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8280838B2/en
US-8275803-B2 System and method for providing answers to questions Eric W. Brown, David Ferrucci, Adam Lally, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 5/14/08 9/25/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8275803B2/en
CA-2843405-A1 A decision-support application and system for problem solving using a question-answering system Sugato Bagchi, David A. Ferrucci, Anthony T. Levas, Erik T. Mueller 3/8/11 https://patents.google.com/patent/CA2843405A1/en
US-8200656-B2 Inference-driven multi-source semantic search Eric W. Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James J. Fan, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, Anthony T. Levas, James William Murdock, IV 11/17/09 6/12/12 https://patents.google.com/patent/US8200656B2/en
US-2011125734-A1 Questions and answers generation Pablo A. Duboue, David A. Ferrucci, David C. Gondek, James W. Murdock, IV, Wlodek W. Zadrozny 11/23/09 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20110125734A1/en
US-7757163-B2 Method and system for characterizing unknown annotator and its type system with respect to reference annotation types and associated reference taxonomy nodes Yurdaer N. Doganata, Youssef Drissi, David A. Ferrucci, Tong-haing Fin, Genady Grabarnik, Lev Kozakov 1/5/07 7/13/10 https://patents.google.com/patent/US7757163B2/en
US-7333967-B1 Method and system for automatic computation creativity and specifically for story generation Selmer Conrad Bringsjord, David Angelo Ferrucci 12/23/99 2/19/08 https://patents.google.com/patent/US7333967B1/en
US-7178105-B1 Method and system for document component importation and reconciliation David Angelo Ferrucci, Steinar Flatland, Adam Patrick Lally 2/4/00 2/13/07 https://patents.google.com/patent/US7178105B1/en
US-7139752-B2 System, method and computer program product for performing unstructured information management and automatic text analysis, and providing multiple document views derived from different document tokenizations Andrei Z Broder, David Carmel, Arthur C Ciccolo, David Ferrucci, Yoelle Maarek, Yosi Mass, Aya Soffer, Wlodek W Zadrozny 5/30/03 11/21/06 https://patents.google.com/patent/US7139752B2/en
US-7131057-B1 Method and system for loose coupling of document and domain knowledge in interactive document configuration David Angelo Ferrucci, Steinar Flatland, Adam Patrick Lally 2/4/00 10/31/06 https://patents.google.com/patent/US7131057B1/en
US-2004243554-A1 System, method and computer program product for performing unstructured information management and automatic text analysis Andrei Broder, Arthur Ciccolo, David Ferrucci, Alan Marwick, Wlodek Zadrozny 5/30/03 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20040243554A1/en
US-2004243556-A1 System, method and computer program product for performing unstructured information management and automatic text analysis, and including a document common analysis system (CAS) David Ferrucci, Thilo Goetz, Thomas Hampp, Alan Marwick, Oliver Suhre, Wlodek Zadrozny 5/30/03 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20040243556A1/en
US-2004243560-A1 System, method and computer program product for performing unstructured information management and automatic text analysis, including an annotation inverted file system facilitating indexing and searching Andrei Broder, David Ferrucci, Alan Marwick, Yosi Mass, Wlodek Zadrozny 5/30/03 https://patents.google.com/patent/US20040243560A1/en

 

SOME BOOKS ON IBM WATSON

(unless otherwise specified, these are of general domain applicability)

  1. Rob High  and Tanmay Bakshi,  (2019) Cognitive Computing with IBM Watson: Build smart applications using artificial intelligence as a service 
  2. IBM Redbooks, IBM Watson Content Analytics: Discovering Actionable Insight from Your Content. 3rd Edition
  3. Steven Baker, (2011), Final Jeopardy: Man vs. Machine and the Quest to Know Everything 

RELEVANT SOURCES INCLUDING THOSE CITED IN PATENTS:

  1. IBM’s DeepQA Research Team Publications
  2. Ferrucci et al., “Towards the Open Advancement of Question Answering Systems,” IBM Technical Report RC24789, Computer Science, Apr. 22, 2009.
  3. David Ferrucci, Eric Brown, Jennifer Chu-Carroll, James Fan, David Gondek, Aditya A. Kalyanpur, Adam Lally, J. William Murdock, Eric Nyberg, John Prager, Nico Schlaefer, and Chris Welty, (2010) *Building Watson: An Overview of the DeepQA Project, AI Magazine Fall, 2010.
  4. William Murdock (2015), Decision Making in IBM Watson Question Answering Web presentation: Ontology Summit 2015
  5. M. Devarakonda, Dongyang Zhang, Ching-Huei Tsou, M. Bornea, Problem-oriented patient record summary: An early report on a Watson application, e-Health Networking, Applications and Services (Healthcom), 2014 IEEE 16th International Conference on, pp. 281-286
  6. WatsonPaths: Scenario-based Question Answering and Inference over Unstructured Information,IBM Research Report RC25489, IBM, 2014
  7. Nico Schlaefer, (2011),Statistical Source Expansion for Question Answering, PHD Thesis,CMU-LTI-11-019
  8. Special Issue on Question Answering, AI Magazine Vol 31 No 3: Fall 2010
  9. Bernstein et al., Ginseng: A Guided Input Natural Language Search Engine for Querying Ontologies, 2006, Jena User Conference, pp. 1-3.
  10. Blitzer, Domain Adaptation of Natural Language Processing Systems, Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 2007.
  11. Bollen et al., Mining associative relations from website logs and their application to context-dependent retrieva
  12. l using spreading activation, 1999, ACM, pp. 1-6.
  13. Broekstra et al., Sesame: A Generic Architecture for Storing and Querying RDF and RDF Schema, 2002, ISWC, vol. 2342/2002, pp. 54-68.
  14. Chang et al., “Creating An Online Dictionary of Abbreviations from MEDLINE,” J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002; 9:612-620. DOI 10.1197/jamia.M1139.
  15. Chu-Carroll et al., “In Question-Ansering, Two Heads are Better than One”, HLT-NAACL’03, May-Jun. 2003, pp. 24-31, Edmonton, Canada.
  16. Cucerzan et al., “Factoid Question Answering over Unstructured and Structured Web Content”, In Proceedings of the 14th Text Retrieval Conference TREC 2005, Dec. 31, 2005.
  17. Finin, Swoogle: a search and metadata engine for the semantic web, 2004, ACM, pp. 652-659.
  18. Fininet al., Information Retrieval and the Semantic Web, 2005, System Sciences, pp. 1-10.
  19. Kaufmann et al., How Useful Are Natural Language Interfaces to the Semantic Web for Casual End-Users?, 2007, Springer, pp. 281-294.
  20. Ran et al., Natrual Language Query System for RDF Repositories, 2007, SNLP, pp. 1-6.
  21. Tablan et al., A Natural Language Query Interface to Structured Information, 2008, Springer pp. 1-15.
  22. Wang et al., PANTO: A Portable Natural Language Interface to Ontologies, 2007, Springer, pp. 473-487.
  23. Bouzegboub et al, Search and Composition of Learning Objects in a Visual Environment, in Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer: Berlin & Heidelberg, vol. 5794 (2009) ISSN 0302-9743 (Print) 1611-3349 (Online), ISBN 978-3-642-04635-3.
  24. Cao, TH. et al.; A robust ontology-based method for translating natural language queries to conceptual graphs, 2008.
  25. Chabane Djeraba, Marinette Bouet, and Henri Briand, “Concept-Based Query in Visual Information Systems,” IEEE International Forum on Research and Technology Advances in Digital Libraries ADL’98 ,pp. 299-308.
  26. D. Braga, A. Campi, and S. Ceri, XQBE (XQuery by Example): A Visual Interface to the Standard XML Query Language, ACM Transactions on Database Systems 30.2 (2005) 398-443.
  27. G. Barzdins, E. Liepins, M. Veilande, & M. Zviedris, “Ontology Enabled Graphical Database Query Tool for End-Users,” in H.-M. Haav & A. Kalja, edd., Databases and Information Systems V (2009) 105-116.
  28. Gustavo O. Arocena, Alberto O. Mendelzon, and George A. Mihailal, “Applications of a Web query language,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems ,29.8-13 (Sep. 1997) 1305-1316 = Papers from the Sixth International World Wide Web Conference.
  29. Irna M.R. Evangelista Filha, Altigran S. Da Silva, Alberto H.F. Laender, and David W. Embley, “Using Nested Tables for Representing and Querying Semistructured Web Data,” in Anne Banks Pidduck, John Mylopoulos, Carson C. Woo, and M. Tamer Ozsu, edd., Advanced Information Systems Engineering LNCS 2348 (2002) 719-723.
  30. Kudelka, M. et al.; Semantic Analysis of Web Pages Using Web Patterns, 2006 (IEEE).
  31. Li et al, “XGI: A Graphical Interface for XQuery Creation,” in AMIA Annu Symp Proc . (2007) 453-457.
  32. Moller, M. et al, RadSem: semantic annotation and retrieval for medical images,2009.
  33. Petropoulos et al, (Querying and Reporting Semistructured Data, QURSED, 2002.
  34. S. Jeromy Carriere and Rick Kazman, “WebQuery: searching and visualizing the Web through connectivity,” Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 29.8-13 (Sep. 1997) 1257-1267 = Papers from the Sixth International World Wide Web Conference.
  35. Sriram Raghavana and Hector Garcia-Molina, “Complex Queries over Web Repositories,” Proceedings 2003 VLDB Conference (2003) 33-44.
  36. Urbain, J. et al.; Probabilistic passages models for semantic search search of genomics literature, 2008.
  37. Wen-Syan Li and Junho Shim, “Facilitating complex Web queries through visual user interfaces and query relaxation,” in Computer Networks and ISDN Systems ,vol. 30, Issues 1-7, Apr. 1998, pp. 149-159 = Proceedings of the Seventh International World Wide Web Conference.
  38. Wen-Syan Li, Junho Shim and K. Selcuk Candan, “WebDB: A System for Querying Semi-structured Data on the Web,” Journal o/Visual Languages & Computing 13.1 (Feb. 2002) 3-33.
  39. Xian Ding et al, An ontology-based semantic expansion search model using semantic condition transform,2009.
  40. Apache incubator, Apache UIMA, http://incubatorapache.org/uima/.
  41. Berger et al., A Maximum Entropy Approach to Natural Language Processing, Association for Computational Linguistics, 1996.
  42. Etzioni et al.,”Open information extraction from the web” Communications of the ACM , vol. 51 Issue 12, Dec. 2008 pp. 68-74. *
  43. Wikipedia, UIMA, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UIMA.
  44. “INDRI Language modeling meets inference networks,” http://www.lemurproject.org/indri/, last modified May 23, 2011; pp. 1-2.
  45. Question answering,” From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Question-answering
  46. Adar, “SaRAD: a Simple and Robust Abbreviation Dictionary,” Bioinformatics, Mar. 2004, pp. 527-533, vol. 20 Issue 4.
  47. Aditya et al., “Leveraging Community-built Knowledge for Type Coercion in Question Answering,” Proceedings of ISWC 2011.
  48. Balahur, “Going Beyond Traditional QA Systems: Challenges and Keys in Opinions Question Answering,” Coling 2010: Poster Volume, pp. 27-35, Beijing, Aug. 2010.
  49.  — more references coming 🙂

.

What connects all these clues?

Really, if you had to link all these, what would YOU come up with …   it turns our that all these are linked via George Gilder’s brain and imagination of   in his “Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy “  (more details here)

(rank / xx / subject)

1          60        The System of The World

83        36        Artificial Intelligence

84        36        Machine Learning

88        35        Data Centers

92        34        Information Theory

117      28        Virtual Reality

118      28        Von Neumann

130      26        Computer Science

171      23        Human Beings

193      22        Smart Contracts

230      19        Larry Page

315      16        Open Source

316      16        Peter Thiel

320      16        The Dalles

407      14        Vitalik Buterin

421      13        Billion Dollars

422      13        Deep Learning

437      13        Markov Models

479      12        Brendan Eich

483      12        Central Banks

485      12        Data Centers

486      12        Elon Musk

497      12        Marc Andreessen

508      12        Private Keys

510      12        Public Keys

512      12        Search Engines

517      12        Speed Of Light

526      12        The Machine

553      11        Bell’s Law

558      11        Craig Wright

567      11        Human Intelligence

577      11        Muneeb Ali

578      11        New York Times

592      11        The Real World

614      11        Time and Space

643      10        Cloud Computing

651      10        Economic Growth

670      10        Jaron Lanier

673      10        Market Cap

677      10        Neal Stephenson

678      10        Nick Stab

691      10        Property Rights

834      9          Satoshi Nakamoto

869      9          Venture Capitalists

906      8          Bitcoin Blockchain

918      8          Eric Schmidt

919      8          Face Recognition

932      8          Google Brain

933      8          The Great Unbundling

934      8          The Ground State

945      8          Internet Architecture

960      8          Low Entropy

982      8          Princeton University

94        8          Scarcity Of Time

1024    8          Thiel Fellowship

1162    7          Hidden Markov Models

1163    7          High Entropy

1166    7          Human Brains

1167    7          Human History

1168    7          Human Minds

1184    7          Information Economy

1185    7          Information Technology

1242    7          Private Keys

1246    7          Ray Kurzweil

1253    7          Self Driving Cars

1254    7          Sergey Brin

1286    7          The Great Unbundling

1324    7          Turing Machine

1412    6          Bill Dally

1424    6          Charles Sanders Peirce

1445    6          Economic Activity

1544    6          Lambda Labs

1547    6          Leemon Baird

1639    6          Stephen Balaban

1739    6          Walled Gardens

1887    5          Being Human

1894    5          Bitcoin Maximalists

1898    5          Blockchain Technology

1977    5          Free Will

2001    5          Hal Finney

2019    5          Human Consciousness

2078    5          Kurt Gödel

2099    5          Mathematical Logic

2100    5          Mathematics of Creativity

Beyond the Usual AI and Machine Intelligence

the Beyond topics
  1. George Gilder –Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy worth reading to obtain additional perspectives. Some may be right, some may be wrong. Definitely technologically provocative. Will Google/Alphabet last?Do you know about the Dalles? You should. My first clue was through the book …OK … find out more about Google’s Data Centers. Find out more about other pieces worth knowing.

the Artificial and Machine Intelligence related topics

  1. Gelernter, D. (2016). The tides of mind: Uncovering the spectrum of consciousness. WW Norton & Company.
  2. Marquis, P., Papini, O., & Prade, H. (2014). Some Elements for a Prehistory of Artificial Intelligence in the Last Four Centuries. ECAI.
  3. Scheutz, M. (Ed.). (2002). Computationalism: new directions. MIT Press.
  4. Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach.
    This is an updated edition of the 2010 version containing extensive current references. [note the book is getting hard to find sometimes due to demand, and its being the definitive AI textbook. Check the edition you are using/getting]
  5. Sutton, R. S., & Barto, A. G. (2018). Reinforcement learning: An introduction. MIT Press. This is an updated (2nd) edition of the 1998 version
  6. Nilsson, N. J., & Nilsson, N. J. (1998). Artificial intelligence: a new synthesis. Morgan Kaufmann.
  7. Poole, D. L., Mackworth, A. K., & Goebel, R. (1998). Computational intelligence: a logical approach (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.
    see also Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents 2nd Edition by the same authors.
  8. Pratt, V. (1987). Thinking Machines—The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. – this is a general history of earlier machines … great reference to get historical insights not easily obtained elsewhere.
  9. Turing, A. M. (1948). Intelligent machinery. NPL. Mathematics Division. See also, Turing, A. (2004). Intelligent machinery (1948). The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life plus The Secrets of Enigma B. Jack Copeland, 395 which provides context and pointers to additional Turing resources.
  10. B. Jack Copeland (2004), Computability: Turing, Gödel, Church, and Beyond, The MIT Press.

Hard(er) Core Science Fiction and Speculative Fiction works

    1. John C. Wright’s Count to the Eschaton series is worth reading … provides interesting glimpse into a possible (far) future. It’s also fun to read … so good ideas and an interesting, universe spanning plot.

Concerning Superintelligence

These are my recommendations of key texts to read  if you really want to get familiar with   Superintelligence. 

SI-1. Good, I. J. (1966). Speculations concerning the first ultraintelligent machine. In Advances in computers (Vol. 6, pp. 31-88). Elsevier.

Irving John (Jack) Good was mathematician who worked with Alan Turing and made significant contribution to braking the Enigma codes. One could regard him as Turing’s statistician. Good later worked with British AI pioneer and computer designer Donald Michie. Good devoted much of his later life to research in Bayesian statistics. Goods paper cited above was the first to clearly spell out ultraintelligent machines and can be rightly viewed as the basis of the superintelligence discipline today. This paper stated:

Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an ‘intelligence explosion,’ and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control

This short paragraph not only presages the idea of superintelligent AI, it also laid the groundwork for subsequent Paperclip Apocalypse scenarios and the drive for AI safety considerations. Good was particularly a credible messenger due to his early intimate and highly knowledgeable technical familiarity and experience with highly complex and capable computers.

SI-2. Bostrom, N. (2014). Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bostrom’s book was much waited by the superintelligence (SI) community, and in some respects provided the academic sanctioning of runaway-AI potential for harm, and AI-safety, as legitimate scholarly topics for discussion. In some ways the runaway SI apocalypse scenarios act to counterbalance Ray Kurzweil’s Exponentiality of all things technological and Singularity visions.

SI-3. Drexler, K.E. (2019): Reframing Superintelligence: Comprehensive AI Services as General Intelligence, Technical Report #2019-1, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford

This is a must read by Eric Drexler, pioneer of nanotechnology . This report projects a possible, if not likely, trajectory of AI development that envisions emergence of asymptotically comprehensive, superintelligent-level AI services. Drexler has been prescient regarding the importance of and trajectory of nanotechnology.

SI-4.Yampolskiy, R. V. (2015). Artificial Superintelligence: a futuristic approach. CRC Press.

While maintaining a focus on AI and superintelligence safety, Roman Yampolskiy brings additional dimensions to discussions of superintelligence. I am not quite sure why the need to use the term Artificial in the title and the discussion. Superintelligence is not now and will never be a normal or natural attribute; I view adding artificial to superintelligence as redundant.

The book includes interesting and useful discussions on topics such as AI-Completeness and AI-Hardness, Mind Design and associated taxonomies of real and speculative mind design space. Most of the intensity and depth of discussion though is focused on the harm that SI can bring (and according to the author and many of the references cited, viewed as very likely to occur.) The detailed references provided are exceptional. Personally, I would prefer to see more discussion of the positive aspects of SI and the hard problems it can and should solve first.

SI-5. Philip Larrey (2017), Would Super-Human Machine Intelligence Really Be Super-Human? in G. Dodig-Crnkovic and R. Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation and Reality in Humans, Other Living Organisms and Intelligent Machines , (Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics 28, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43784-2_19)

AI Recommended Readings / Possible. Minds

added a section for Artificial / computational / machine intelligence recommended readings on the main site — here.

noted also that  “We’re also paying attention to the applicability of AI/MI concepts to the space of What Sloman calls ‘possible minds’. “The idea is that the space of possible minds encompasses not only the biological minds that have arisen on this earth, but also extraterrestrial intelligence, and whatever forms of biological or evolved intelligence are possible but have never occurred, and artificial intelligence in the whole range of possible ways we might build AI”

The initial list of principal textbooks include:
1. Russell, S. J., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach.
This is an updated edition of the 2010 version containing extensive current references.
[note the book is getting hard to find sometimes due to demand, and its being the definitive AI textbook, check the edition you are using/getting]

2. Sutton, R. S., & Barto, A. G. (2018). Reinforcement learning: An introduction. MIT Press. This is an updated (2nd) edition of the 1998 version.
In addition to his University of Alberta academic appointment, Richard Sutton is now the head of Alphabet/Google DeepMind Alberta operations.

3. Nilsson, N. J., & Nilsson, N. J. (1998). Artificial intelligence: a new synthesis. Morgan Kaufmann.

4. Poole, D. L., Mackworth, A. K., & Goebel, R. (1998). Computational intelligence: a logical approach (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.

5.  Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents 2nd Edition by the same authors.